Implementación de un sistema de medición de temperatura empleando fibra óptica para el estudio térmico de transformadores de distribución inmersos en aceite mineral y vegetal
Navas, D. F. (Diego Fernando) | 2013-10-22
Transformers are elements of the utmost importance in the layout of power grids. Their usable lifespan depends on various factors, amongst them, the temperature within their own interior, specially the localized temperature on their insulating material components. Such temperatures are usually approximated through proposed guideline models, however, as stated, these values are approximations and realtime direct measurements would be much more desirable. Due to purely economic reasons, direct measurement is often used for power transformers. However, in the advent of “Smart Grids” distribution system instrumentation will be necessary, as well as the use of cleaner technologies. For research purposes, in this paper, the authors will discuss their experiences in instrumentation with optical fibers in four different distribution transformers submerged in mineral and vegetable oil, for thermal evaluation. The transformers have capacities that range from 15 kVA to 37,5 kVA and operate at voltages of 7620 V / 240 V. This paper also explains the process of identifying which are the optimal temperature measurement points in the interior of the transformer and leads into the results of temperature rise tests with simulated loads through the use of short circuits and through constant reference fault and actual load at two levels to compare measurements within each of the transformers.