Efecto de la microgravedad sobre la pérdida de masa ósea a nivel miembro inferior mediante análisis por elementos finitos
Montoya Goez, Yesid | 2019
In an environment of normal gravity, acceleration is a key factor in maintaining animal physiological functions, in contrast to the outer space that is characterized among other things by having a microgravity environment, which has serious physiological consequences, as modifications of the bone system due to the loss of the notion of weight, increasing the risk of fractures when returning to Earth after a space mission. In this work, the variation in the tensions that the bone can suffer due to the decrease in bone density due to prolonged stays in an environment of reduced severity is analyzed. So, a methodology based on the analysis of medical images in DICOM format obtained from a computed tomography of the lower limb of a specific patient is proposed for the development of computational models that, with the estimated forces provided in a motion analysis, are they develop finite elements analysis to obtain fracture risk indicators in people undergoing microgravity environments for prolonged periods, in addition, this methodology will be applicable for the evaluation of fractures of people who, given a clinical condition, have a decrease in bone density, for example osteoporosis and osteopenia.
In this study, it was possible to identify that when there is a decrease in bone density of 2% and 12% ,corresponding to stays of two and six months in environments of reduced gravity respectively, there are alterations in the mechanical properties of bone components of the analyzed members, which are mainly reflected in the displacements produced in the bones when a load is applied on the joints involved in a process of regular walking at the lower limb; The results indicate that, bone density is inversely proportional to the displacement of the analyzed bones, that is, as bone density decreases, the displacement produced increases.
On the other hand, when the stresses and deformations in the bones involved (Femur, tibia and fibula) in the gait process in the evaluated joints (Hip, knee and ankle) are analyzed, it is evident that the values remain relatively constant regardless of the Bone density changes, as expected, because these indicators should not change in their values due to changes in the material properties of the simulated models.