Determinación de la tarifa para un esquema de cobro de congestión para los corredores principales del centro de Medellín
Pava Restrepo, Andrés | 2019
Due to the increasing number of vehicles in cities and the need to carry out urban displacements, mainly in cars, congestion and pollution have increased, affecting the quality of life of the inhabitants. Medellín is not the difference, in the city between 2005 and 2012 the time required to travel the same number of kilometers has increased by 32%, despite, since 2005 we have the "Pico y Placa." Where the lowest speeds occur in the downtown area, with values between 5 and 13 km / h (Gonzalez Calderón, 2009).
On the other hand, analyzing international cases, such as London, Singapore, Milan and Stockholm, where urban tolls have been implemented in which their price includes costs for congestion and pollution; For example, in Stockholm, the concentration of carbon monoxide in the restricted area was reduced by 14% and traffic by 18% as a result of the measure, which demonstrates that this system directly influences the use of the private vehicle and the Improvement of city mobility using existing roads (García, 2018).
Although studies have been carried out in the city of Medellín in order to know the willingness of users to pay a congestion fee, the exact costs that are caused by congestion and contamination are still unknown, which does not allow us to internalize this cost to users. That is why this project seeks to establish a collection rate that takes into account the individual and exogenous costs generated by congestion in the downtown areas of the city, more specifically in three representative corridors of Medellín downtown (La Playa, Palacé and Colombia), because it is in these areas where the greatest congestion is generated thanks to the amount of economic activities carried out in them. And with the demand curve made by the National University in 2012 and the development of a microscopic model that allows us to estimate the evaluation variables in congested corridors, the flow of vehicles with which the transport network in the hypothetical scenario would count with the implementation of a congestion charge, in order to establish the rate for a charging scheme that allows these costs to be transferred to users who jointly cause congestion, specifically in the private vehicle that is the mode with the greatest presence in the center according to the destination origin survey (Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley, 2017).